What are the largest radio wavelengths observed from radio sources in the sky?
What are the longest radio wavelengths observed from radio sources in the sky?
As far as I can see, the shortest frequency that has been detected from space so far is 15-30 MHz (10-15 m wavelength) by the founder of radio astronomy, Karl Jansky.
At what facilities?
Janksy was using a rotable antenna to do measurements of radio interference for Bell Labs when he detected the radio emission from outer space. Of late, observations have been done at 74 MHz from the Very Large Array. In addition, a new facility called the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is being designed.
What kind of information does longer radio waves provide over shorter radio waves?
Generally speaking, there are several sources which are brighter at longer wavelengths, like supernova remnants, pulsars, etc. The exact science that one hopes to do with long wavelength observations is extremely technical, a brief summary of which you can find at this website.
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